Integrative Medicine

Medical Practice


About Doctor Sandra Pinkham

Sandra Pinkham, M.D. is a practicing physician in Columbus, OH. She is a graduate from Upper Arlington High School. Her professional degrees are from Carleton College and the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. Six of her articles on cadmium and its effects on human health and the environment have been published since 1989. She has found that cadmium through its effects on a cell surface receptor, calmodulin, multiple enzymes, gene expression, generation of free radicals, toxicity to cell membranes and mitochondria, and endocrine disruption can explain many adverse health effects attributed to stress. She works with patients of all ages to determine how life style changes and targeted nutritional supplements, hormonal support, or medications can foster health. Since cadmium affects all living cells. She is concerned with educating the public about how cadmium in air needs to be accurately measured and addressed to solve not only our current health problems but also global environmental concerns.

 

Blog

You can connect with Dr. Pinkham and exchange some of her ideas by visiting her blog at http://pinkhammedical.blogspot.com/

Publications

Below you can find some of Dr. Pinkham papers and publications in PDF format.

 

Title: Stress Responses of Children to Cadmium Air Pollution: Implications for Patient Care and Public Policy

Subject Terms: Cadmium, Sources of, Newborn, Cigarette Smoke, Gene Effects,  Cell Adhesion.

Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal which the young absorbs efficiently. Newborn babies acquire Cd from cigarette smoke and emission of as little as one ton of Cd fumes into the air a year. Although lead (Pb) was expected to be associated with premature births, maternal blood levels of Cd, not Pb, were associated with preterm births in Sweden and Poland. Environmental exposure to Cd was correlated to a lower human birth weight in a study done in France. Whenever an increase in any toxic compound is found, Cd needs to be suspected of playing a rule in the increase body burden of the chemical as well as in the toxicity found..

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Title: Environmental Impact of Waste Incineration on Children

Subject Terms: Cadmium. Phosphorus. Hair analysis. Neuro-behavioral toxicity. waste incineration

Abstract: Using cell systems, scientists have found that the threshold for a toxic effect from cadmium is well within ambient levels, especially when there is synergy with other toxic agents. By using interdisciplinary findings from cell biology and looking simultaneously at biologic effects in both plants and humans, it is possible to implicate cadmium pollution from waste incineration in environmental stress effects, such as seeding in trees and learning and behavioral problems in children. A small homogeneous sample of white upper middle class prepubertal males was studied for effects of heavy metal exposure. Hair phosphorus and a history of exposure to heavy metals from dust, dirt, traffic, and cigarette smoke accounted for 38% of the variance in listening and achievement test scores. Cadmium inhibition (in genetically susceptible hosts) of pyrimidine-5′-nucleotidase is a reasonable explanation for excess seeding in trees and the changes in hair mineral content of children showing subtle neurotoxicity.

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Title: The Toxicity of Cadmium Air Pollution: A Reappraisal

Subject Terms: Cadmium. Air Pollution. Cigarette smoke. HIV-1. Psychoneuroimmunology

Abstract: Cadmium, a ubiquitous air pollutant, is increasing in the environment. However, toxicity concerns regarding cadmium are restricted to exposure by ingestion primarily. By re-examining existing assumptions in the light of known cellular actions of cadmium, one can recognize that exposure by air is far more potent and affects all life forms around the globe. By over-emphasizing cadmium accumulation levels, scientists are missing the biologic effects of this highly mobile metal with multiple effects. By altering cell controls affecting weather and temperature, one can hypothesize that cadmium profoundly affects the environment. Cadmium, which concentrates in tobacco leaves and dust, induces stress and enhances stress responses producing injuries in genetically susceptible cells, tissues, organs, or organisms in a variety of ways. Other heavy metals, radon, asbestos, magnetic fields, toxic organics and microbials, which are known to react synergistically with cadmium, have similar effects. By comparing the attributes of a disease like AIDS and the attributes of cadmium in experimental studies, it is possible to build a case for studying and treating this disease as one in which a synergistic effect is occurring between HIV-1 and cadmium. By acting as a biochemical link in psychosomatic processes, cadmium alone and together with other injurious agents can produce the varied injuries associated with disease. Since blocking cadmium solubility in air, supplying depleted nutrients, blocking cell entry or solubility in tissues, and safely promoting cadmium excretion are appropriate ways of treating illness associated with cadmium, the hypothesize that the global bioavailability of cadmium air pollution is having an effect on the environment and human disease needs immediate attention.

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Title: Cadmium 702

Subject Terms: Cadmium. Air Pollution. Cigarette smoke.

Abstract: As a stress agent, inducing apoptosis and blocking it, Cd can have both helpful and harmful effects. The atmosphere is a thin envelope which makes the world a global village. Cd is the most toxic metal in air. As both the first and second messenger of the stress response, it is synergistically toxic with all other stressors, including many other carcinogens. Elimination of Pb and its replacement with added benzene in gasoline appears to have increased the toxicity of atmospheric Cd. With scientific understanding of the molecular basis of Cd’s role in carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis, primary cancer prevention can be practiced by reducing Cd and chemical air pollution and educating the public on smoke cessation, healthy eating habits and stress reduction. Using the existing information on Cd and its effects, determinations could be made on established cancers so that individualized treatment protocols can be developed to improve patient care.

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Title: Cadmium: Carcinogen, Co-carcinogen and Anti-carcinogen

Subject Terms: Cadmium. Air Pollution. Cigarette smoke.

Abstract: As a stress agent, inducing apoptosis and blocking it, Cd can have both helpful and harmful effects. The atmosphere is a thin envelope which makes the world a global village. Cd is the most toxic metal in air. As both the first and second messenger of the stress response, it is synergistically toxic with all other stressors, including many other carcinogens. Elimination of Pb and its replacement with added benzene in gasoline appears to have increased the toxicity of atmospheric Cd. With scientific understanding of the molecular basis of Cd’s role in carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis, primary cancer prevention can be practiced by reducing Cd and chemical air pollution and educating the public on smoke cessation, healthy eating habits and stress reduction. Using the existing information on Cd and its effects, determinations could be made on established cancers so that individualized treatment protocols can be developed to improve patient care.

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Title: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: is Cadmium the Catalyst?

Subject Terms: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Cadmium Toxicity, Psychoneuroimmunology

Abstract: Understanding the actions of cadmium may well be one of the keys to understanding CSF. Low dose Cd toxicity can be suspected by looking for historical evidence of genetic susceptibility to disease, nutritional deficiency, psychosocial stress, and other toxic exposures that could be synergistic with Cd. Laboratory studies indicate stress phenomenon. To further understand the role of Cd in CFS, research is needed on platelet reactivity, nutrient levels, beta-2 microglobulins, and ultrastructural studies of nerves, muscle and connective tissue.

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Title: Detecting Ambient Cadmium Toxicity in an Ecosystem

Subject Terms: Cadmium, lead, health effects, waste incineration, plant stress

Abstract: The threshold for a toxic effect from cadmium is close to its background levels. In experimental studies chronic low dose exposure does not necessarily increase body burden and causes effects associated with other stressors, therefore, low dose effects from environmental sources are hard to establish using traditional approaches. The effects of ambient cadmium have increased with the precipitous drop in lead in the atmosphere. They are manifested by increased stress responses. In a community exposed to cadmium fumes from waste incineration, one can infer cadmium effects in such observed environmental stresses as increased seeding in trees, tree injuries, and learning and behavioral problems in children. .

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Title: Cadmium and Stress

Subject Terms: Cadmium, health effects, stress,

Abstract: Outline

View: PDF Full Text (64K)

Title: Stress Responses of Children to Cadmium Air Pollution:
Implications for Patient Care and Public Policy

Subject Terms: Children, Stress, Cadmium, health effects, stress,

Abstract: Outline

View: PDF Full Text (237K)

 

Title: The Linkage of Global Issues with Cellular Effects of Cadmium Air Pollution

Subject Terms: Children, Stress, Cadmium, health effects, stress,

Abstract: According to “the precautionary principle” it is better to accept as true what cannot be perfectly proved, even though it might be wrong, if doing so can lead to actions which will protect our ecosystem. This paper uses this guideline to assess the effects of cadmium exposure and its toxicity. This highly toxic metal is apparently used by the cell in the stress response to get rid of damaged, virus-infected, and cancerous cells. Indiscriminant exposure to global cadmium air pollution alters the cellular content of free cadmium ion sand the minerals that antagonize its effects, affecting the response of cells, organs, and individuals to all other stimuli. Cadmium’s effects at low dose are thus influenced by many factors, not just dose. These factors include age, gender, species, genetic factors, prior nutritional history and exposure to cadmium and other stressors, and current nutritional history and exposure to other stressors. Other toxic metals, organic compounds, biological pathogens and emotional stresses interact with cadmium to produce effects. Stress effects at a cellular level appear linked with current global problems affecting the environment, such as global warming , and human health effects, like the increase in disabling fatigue and infectious disease.

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Title: Assessment of Cadmium Air Pollution Effects

Subject Terms: Children, Air, Pollution, Stress, Cadmium, health effects, stress,

Abstract: Change is constant in nature. Nevertheless, the rapid increase in human population, accompanied by rising infections, cancers, societal violence, global species loss, and global weather changes are compelling reasons to look carefully at those global environmental factors that might be influencing these changes in order to see if they might be amenable to some kind of control. Evaluating and analyzing global processes require a new kind of problem solving that can deal with inherent unresolvable uncertainties and complexities. In the past, global problems have been difficult to study scientifically because they can’t be solved with classical methods of scientific proof due to non-linear effects, inter-dependent variables, and confounding factors. Because of the critical importance of our global problems, we can no longer afford to ignore what we cannot thoroughly know (Funtowicz 1994). Assessing the effects of global cadmium (Cd) air pollution is an example of this new kind of problem solving. The task of assessing the effects of Cd air pollution is daunting. There are irregular releases of Cd into air coming from such natural sources as volcanoes and forest fires (Mislin 1987). A relentless increase in Cd air pollution accompanies population growth because Cd air pollution.

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